Re: [ba-unrev-talk] Fallacious Reasoning
John left a few out. Here's one:
Name Calling or Substitutions of Names or Moral Labels. This technique
attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of
the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates,
loathes, or finds undesirable.
At 07:20 AM 9/10/2002 -0700, John Maloney wrote:
From Howard Kahane (1976) Logic and
*** Fallacious Because of Being Invalid
Appeal to Authority - Improper appeal to authority. An example is when a
Nobel laureate in chemistry writes an opinion about a subject she is not
an expert such as political science and people then cite him as an
authority about political science believing that being considered and
expert in one area means they are knowledgeable about others. Popularity
- Appeal to the crowd as the authority. An example is someone believing
something is to be true because people in general believe something to be
Traditional Wisdom - Appealing to the past as authority. An example - it
has always been believed that way so therefore it is.
Provincialism - Failure to look beyond one's own group. Also called
"not-invented-here" syndrome where a knowledge claim is not
believed to be true because it is generated by another group other than
Loyalty - Deciding the truth on the basis of loyalty. Believing something
to be true because a group you are loyal to believes it to be true.
Irrelevant Reason - Use of evidence entirely irrelevant to a
Ambiguity - Use of ambiguous terms to mislead (or which in fact
Slippery Slope - Failure to see that the first step in possible series of
steps does not inevitably lead to the rest
Balkanization theory - The conclusion that the breakup of one company or
nation will lead to others
Domino theory - The conclusion that if A falls, then B, then C, and
others will also fall.
Ad Hominem Argument or Genetic Fallacy ( Argument to the Man) Guilt by
Association - Attacking a person rather than the argument.
Two Wrongs Make a Right or Common Practice - "if someone else does
it, it is OK for me to do it"
Tokenism - Do a small amount of what is required and then say that you
did the whole thing
Hasty Conclusion - Jumping to conclusions with not enough evidence
Questionable Classification - Classifying something falsely
Questionable Cause - Labeling something as the cause of something else
with not enough evidence
Questionable Analogy - Falsely comparing or really stretching the
comparison of two things
******Fallacious Even If Valid
Suppressed Evidence - Trying to prove a point while not providing all the
evidence, when doing so would weaken the argument.
Questionable Premise - Accepting premises in an argument that are both
questionable and inadequately supported
Unknown Fact - Stating supporting facts to an argument that are not
possible to know
Questionable evaluation - Using language to conjure up an image that is
different from the facts
Straw man - Misinterpreting or rephrasing an opponent's position so it
becomes easier to attack
False Dilemma - Trying to make an argument either-or when it is not
Begging the Question - Endorsing without prove some form of the very
question at issue
Inconsistency - Arguing using contradictory premises
False Charge of Fallacy - Charging a person of being inconsistent when
all they did was change their mind
From Howard Kahane (1976) Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric
XML Topic Maps: Creating and Using Topic Maps for the Web.
Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-74960-2.