Re: [unrev-II] Towards a summary of documents (including Conceptual Graphs based on existential graphs of Charles Peirce)

From: John J. Deneen (
Date: Mon Nov 06 2000 - 13:35:39 PST

  • Next message: John J. Deneen: "[unrev-II] AUGMENTING HUMAN CAPABILITIES"

    Another interesting reference relative to Doug's applied AUGMENT
    technology at McDonald Douglas:

    Design Repositories: Engineering Design's New Knowledge Base

    Citation: Simon Szykman, Christophe Bochenek, J. W. Racz and Ram Sriram:

    "Design Repositories: Next-Generation Engineering Design Databases," (to
    appear in) IEEE Intelligent Systems and Their Applications, June 2000.

    "Design of complex engineering systems is increasingly becoming a
    collaborative task among designers or design teams that are physically,
    geographically, and temporally distributed. The complexity of modern
    products means that a single designer or design team can no longer
    manage the complete product development effort. Developing products
    without sufficient expertise in a broad set of disciplines can result in
    extended product development cycles, higher development costs, and
    quality problems. On the
    other hand, ensuring comprehensive technical proficiency in a world
    where trends are toward more multidisciplinary design can become a
    costly undertaking for a company.

    Driven by such issues, companies are increasingly staffing only their
    core competencies in-house and depending on other firms to provide the
    complementary design knowledge and design effort needed for a complete
    product. Designers are no longer merely exchanging geometric data, but
    more general knowledge about design and design process, including
    specifications, design rules, constraints, rationale, etc. As design
    becomes increasingly knowledge-intensive and collaborative, the need for
    computational design frameworks to support the representation and use of
    knowledge among distributed designers becomes more critical. Due to the
    explosive growth of the Internet and associated information
    infrastructure, as well as the ubiquity of World Wide Web browsers, the
    use of the Internet and the World Wide Web as a medium for
    communications and information transfer is increasing."

    "John J. Deneen" wrote:

    > Here's another good reference:
    > Building and Searching an XML-based Corporate Memory
    > (Auguste Rabarijaona, Rose Dieng, Olivier Corby, INRIA, France)
    > Abstract: This paper emphasizes the interest of XML meta-language for
    > corporate KM. Taking into account the advantages of the Web and
    > ontologies for KM, we present OSIRIX, a tool enabling
    > enterprise-ontology-guided search in XML documents that may consitute
    > a part of corporate memory.
    > "Advantages of XML for a corporate memory
    > * Many Views on the Same
    > Data.
    > XML enables to manage information and knowledge in a unique
    > structured way and enables several different processings.
    > Knowledge servers retrieve information while clients are in
    > charge of presenting it to users through adapted interfaces. It
    > is then possible to take users and context into account and to
    > present different views of the same data: it may be possible to
    > generate graphic views, table of contents or to show the data
    > themselves. Furthermore, data are loaded into the client (the
    > browser) and can be processed locally: e.g. XML data can be
    > processed by Java applets [5]. Hence, XML may represent for data
    > what Java represents for programs: transparent portability
    > through machines and operating systems.
    > * Documents Built from Heterogenous
    > Data.
    > XML enables to manage structured documents and structured data in
    > a uniform way. The XML format has been designed to enable
    > document description as well as arbitrary data description. It is
    > hence possible to mix data and documents in order to build
    > virtual documents issued from several sources. Data may come from
    > a technical data base while text may come from a document
    > management environment. Furthermore, it is possible to annotate
    > documents with modeled knowledge, so­called ontologies.
    > * Standard for Information
    > Exchange.
    > In order to facilitate communication and information exchange, a
    > community (i.e. a department, a company, a group of companies of
    > the same domain, a company and its related providers and clients,
    > etc) may define a standard domain­oriented or
    > application­oriented vocabulary by means of a DTD (Document Type
    > Definition). A DTD is a syntactic specification being used as
    > model for XML documents. A document is considered as valid if it
    > respects the DTD with which it is associated. Documents or data
    > can then be expressed with the defined XML markups and then be
    > exchanged using these markups [5].
    > * Document
    > Formatting.
    > XML has a companion formalism called XSL (Extensible Stylesheet
    > Language), to define document­oriented presentation format. XSL
    > may present a document in HTML, PDF, etc. It may also generate a
    > generic format, that may be postprocessed to generate a standard
    > output format. XSL also enables elementary document processing
    > such as sorting, generating table of contents, tables,
    > reorganizing the document structure. Using XSL, it is hence
    > possible to define several output formats for the same document
    > structure: XSL is a document transformation and formatting
    > language. It is possible to write once and to publish many times,
    > from the same source, to different media: digital and paper­based
    > ones. This is very interesting for corporate memory management.
    > * Hypertext.
    > XML will also offer tools to build powerful hypertext documents
    > by means of XLL (XML Linking Language), and XPointer, the
    > language that enables navigation in documents according to their
    > structure. XLL will implement the major hypertext functionality
    > that can be found in dedicated tools: links between more than two
    > documents, external links, links with semantics, etc. With
    > external links, documents can be annotated from the outside,
    > without modifying the source.
    > * Information
    > Search.
    > XML facilitates information search because documents are
    > structured and, hence, can be considered as a database. It is
    > possible to rely on standardized markups to search information in
    > a structured way. Moreover, the database community is currently
    > integrating XML with database technology and search languages
    > (cf. XML­QL [10]).
    > * Annotation with
    > metadata.
    > In the spirit of RDF [16], Shoe [18] and OntoBroker [13], it is
    > possible to annotate a document with metadata which describe in
    > an abstract and synthetic way what the document is about,
    > according to predefined standard ontologies.
    > * Semantic
    > markup.
    > It is also possible to markup parts of the text document with
    > tags the semantics of which is to establish a relationship with
    > ontologies and knowledge models. In some cases, the markup can be
    > interpreted as a hypertext link to ontologies. It can also be
    > exploited by markup­driven search engines.
    > * XML and Memory
    > Management.
    > XML as a structured document open standard may be a good
    > candidate to facilitate migration to new systems or software
    > through long time period. With XML, documents exist by
    > themselves, independently of the processing tools. There are no
    > more X or Y proprietary format documents but just (XML)
    > documents.
    > Thanks to all these features, XML is an interesting meta­language for
    > building a document-based corporate memory aimed at being accessible
    > to the Intranet of a company.
    > 5. Enterprise model ­ guided search in XML documents
    > Taking into account the interesting features of XML, we developed
    > techniques for enterprise model­guided search in XML documents.
    > 5.1 Information search guided by knowledge models
    > 5.1.1 Objectives
    > Our main objective is to perform information search in documents on
    > the Web, guided by knowledge models. The result of search should
    > include only relevant answers i.e. Web documents which «correspond
    > semantically» to the request.
    > Instead of developing a specific extension of HTML to support a given
    > ontology (as for example, Ontobroker or Shoe), we choose to handle XML
    > documents, formatted with XML standard. The knowledge models that will
    > guide the search will be CommonKADS expertise models, represented in
    > standard CommonKADS Modelling Language (CML) 1 .
    > The system OSIRIX (Ontology­guided Search for Information Retrieval In
    > XML­documents) is integrated in the following global architecture:"
    > (see Fig. 1 : Global architecture.)
    > Jack Park wrote:
    >> kMail is problematic. The paper cited is valuable in that it
    >> outlines the
    >> issues involved in the construction of an organizational memory (a
    >> NIC).
    >> Unfortunately, it does not appear to be possible to track kmail
    >> further
    >> because there exists a KMail that is part of the KDE Linux desktop
    >> system.
    >> That seems to hog all the kmail hits at google.
    >> Conceptual Graphs were the creation of John F. Sowa, based, he says,
    >> on C.S.
    >> Peirce's Existential Graphs. Sowa may not follow Peirce to the
    >> letter, but
    >> his work is gaining a grand following, not to mention, an email list
    >> devoted
    >> to CGs.
    >> In view of the existence of major events related to the Semantic
    >> Web, it
    >> would seem that this post is very timely and has much to offer the
    >> Unrev
    >> group in relation to the OHS project. Here is an accumulation of
    >> URLs that
    >> relate to this post:
    >> a new organization
    >> SW technologies
    >> workshop
    >> semantic web portal community
    >> 01/semanticweb/index.html?wwwrrr_20001101.ptx
    >> t <<watch out, that belongs with the URL> semantic web -- a primer
    >> narval
    >> a narval child
    >> collab. virtual workspace
    >> OHS project
    >> next year's conceptual structures
    >> workshop
    >> From: John J. Deneen <>
    >> To: <>
    >> Sent: Friday, November 03, 2000 12:17 PM
    >> > I'm sure you'll find the following links about 1) kMail, 2) WebKB
    >> and 3)
    >> > Conceptual Graphs based on the existential graphs of Charles
    >> Sanders
    >> Peirce as
    >> > enabling solutions for powerfully summarizing our Unrev2 mailing
    >> list!!!
    >> >
    >> > 1) kMail: E-mail, contexts and views
    >> > In "Tying Knowledge to Action with kMail, " David G. Schwartz and
    >> Dov
    >> Te'eni
    >> > exploit the Internet and e-mail to disseminate knowledge for the
    >> purposes
    >> of
    >> > capturing Organization Memory (OM) and "collective IQ". They
    >> emphasis the
    >> need
    >> > to tie knowledge to action and present the kMail system, which
    >> integrates
    >> e-mail
    >> > with organizational memories to distribute knowledge over the
    >> Internet at
    >> the
    >> > right time and to the right person. kMail lets e-mail senders
    >> contextualize
    >> > their messages by creating revelant views of the organizational
    >> memory. It
    >> also
    >> > uses metaknowledge consisting of user profile information and
    >> shared
    >> semantics
    >> > information. They describe the context through shared
    >> metaknowledge and
    >> link it
    >> > to the organization memory each time knowledge is used to perform
    >> an
    >> action.
    >> > Domain-specific criteria help determine the revelant views in the
    >> organization.
    >> >
    >> > IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol. 15, No. 3, May/June 2000
    >> >
    >> >
    >> > 2) WebKB: Ontology-guided knowledge retrieval with conceptual
    >> graphs for
    >> > representing metadata on Web documents
    >> >
    >> >
    >> >
    >> >
    >> > 3) Conceptual Graphs
    >> > Conceptual graphs (CGs) are a system of logic based on the
    >> existential
    >> graphs of
    >> > Charles Sanders Peirce and the semantic networks of artificial
    >> intelligence.
    >> > They express meaning in a form that is logically precise, humanly
    >> readable, and
    >> > computationally tractable. With their direct mapping to language,
    >> conceptual
    >> > graphs serve as an intermediate language for translating
    >> computer-oriented
    >> > formalisms to and from natural languages. With their graphic
    >> representation,
    >> > they serve as a readable,
    >> > but formal design and specification language. CGs have been
    >> implemented in
    >> a
    >> > variety of projects for information retrieval, database design,
    >> expert
    >> systems,
    >> > and natural language processing.
    >> >
    >> >
    >> >
    >> > References
    >> > Slides and demo of the WebKB set of tools
    >> >
    >> >
    >> >
    >> > Proceedings of Tenth Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based
    >> Systems
    >> Workshop
    >> >
    >> >
    >> > The Enterprise Ontology
    >> > The Enterprise Ontology is a collection of terms and definitions
    >> relevant
    >> to
    >> > business enterprises. The ontology was developed in the Enterprise
    >> Project
    >> by
    >> > the Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute at the
    >> University of
    >> > Edinburgh with its partners: IBM, Lloyd's Register, Logica UK
    >> Limited, and
    >> > Unilever. The project was support by the UK's Department of Trade
    >> and
    >> Industry
    >> > under the Intelligent Systems Integration Programme(project no
    >> IED4/1/8032)
    >> >
    >> > Conceptually, the Enterprise Ontology it is divided into a number
    >> of main
    >> > sections -- these are summarised below.
    >> >
    >> >
    >> > Other Publications, etc.
    >> >
    >> >
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