Re: [unrev-II] Ontology-based Information Extraction & Collaboration Proposals

From: Henry van Eyken (
Date: Wed Dec 27 2000 - 11:57:31 PST

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    Very interesting, John, to observe the variety of knowledge management
    techniques in the offing.


    "John J. Deneen" wrote:

    > Interesting proposals to think about, discuss, and use as a benchmark
    > for OHS/DKR development..
    > 265 Dogwood Ridge Road
    > Montgomery, PA 17752
    > Phone: (570) 547-6774
    > PI: Todd Griffith
    > Topic#: DARPA 00-013
    > Title: Intelligent Adaptive Software Construction
    > Abstract:
    > The objective of this proposal is to show the feasibility of building a
    > set of software tools enabling researchers (i.e. scientists, inventors,
    > designers, planners, or investors) to represent multiple problem-solving
    > strategies. These DiscoveryTools will allow researchers to quickly and
    > cheaply automate discovery processes thereby increasing the productivity
    > of R&D budgets. The tools will provide a graphical user interface for
    > encoding the strategies (i.e. tasks, methods, and knowledge) required to
    > solve specific problems, and will allow the users to "run" these
    > strategies over sets of data. Most software tools attempt to retrieve or
    > display knowledge from databases so that researchers can act on that
    > knowledge. This research attempts to show that this can be done the
    > other way around. Instead of supplying researchers with knowledge to
    > solve problems, supply a program with strategies to act on the knowledge
    > to which it has access. DiscoveryTools will allow researchers to specify
    > multiple high-level strategies, each of which can be used to solve some
    > set of problems. The tools assist researchers in explicating their
    > problem-solving tasks as a hierarchy of methods and subtasks. In
    > essence, DiscoveryTools will multiply expert researchers leaving more
    > time and money available to pursue the most promising options.
    > 1660 S. Amphlett Blvd., Suite 350
    > San Mateo, CA 94402
    > Phone: (206) 545-1478
    > PI: Ronald Braun
    > Topic#: DARPA 00-012
    > Title: Ontology-Based Information Extraction from Free-Form Text
    > Abstract:
    > We propose an innovative combination of machine learning techniques
    > coupled with a novel end-to-end system architecture built around a
    > shared domain ontology to permit ontology-based information extraction
    > (IE) from free text. Our Ontology-Based IE (OBIE) system will
    > significantly increase end-to-end recall for the IE task while
    > maintaining or improving precision. OBIE will accomplish this by
    > enabling interaction between different levels of the IE processing
    > pipeline simultaneously through a shared ontology. IE components will be
    > developed to demonstrate increases in recall permitted by the inclusion
    > of hierarchical knowledge in their learning algorithms. Active learning
    > and bootstrapping algorithms will be extended to automatically learn the
    > ontology of a new domain, to assist in training the IE components, and
    > to reduce the burden of annotation on the end-user. Performance metrics
    > in a variety of system configurations will allow a characterization of
    > performance gains enabled by the proposed architecture. Phase I research
    > and development of a proof-of-concept limited prototype will demonstrate
    > the feasibility and utility of OBIE's ontology-based IE capability and
    > will lay the groundwork for its Phase II implementation.
    > APTIMA, INC.
    > 600 W. Cummings Park, Suite 3050
    > Woburn, MA 01801
    > Phone: (781) 935-3966
    > PI: Steven Hess
    > Topic#: NAVY 00-086
    > Title: Metrics for Evaluation of Cognitive Architecture-Based
    > Collaboration Tools
    > Abstract:
    > The practice of modern intelligence analysis is increasingly becoming a
    > team effort, requiring distributed teams of experts, to collect, filter,
    > and collaboratively fuse data into coherent responses to Requests for
    > Information (RFI's). To quickly generate a team response, analysts must
    > achieve a shared understanding of the problem and the best ways to
    > assemble data for effective communication back to a consumer.
    > Information Technology (IT) suited to the domain of intelligence
    > analysis, will have to support new collaboration strategies that allow
    > analysts to represent and share evolving understandings of the world,
    > interact with data and link it to emerging arguments, and collaborate to
    > combine related argument threads into a single response to consumers.
    > The current proposal seeks to blend contemporary theories of team
    > cognition with computational modeling techniques and evolving
    > collaboration tools to prototype and assess an innovative solution that
    > allows analysts to generate collaborative responses through the natural
    > process of recognizing and critically evaluating the value of evidence
    > to hypotheses about a situation. The resulting tool will help analysts
    > focus on relevant data, help them organize data, and provide
    > computational tools that insure coherence in final response and assess
    > the impacts of evidence on dynamic team understanding. The results of
    > the proposed work will be a prototype tool supporting collaborative
    > argument construction through the natural process of critically
    > evaluating the value of evidence to competing hypotheses about a
    > situation. The applicability of our proposed tool can be easily extended
    > beyond the targeted domain of intelligence analysis. At the end of Phase
    > I we will have a functional demonstration of the tool, and will be well
    > positioned to demonstrate the generality of our solution for other
    > application domains, both military (e.g., military C2) and civilian
    > (e.g., scientific collaboration, journalism).
    > 4001 Discovery Drive Suite 390
    > Boulder, CO 80303
    > Phone: (303) 545-9092
    > PI: Thomas K. Landauer, Ph.D.
    > Topic#: NAVY 00-088
    > Title: Dynamic SuperManuals with Latent Semantic Analysis
    > Abstract:
    > The object is to be able to design potentially order-of-magnitude better
    > ways to dynamically customize information for given jobs and individual
    > maintainers. This project will address three interrelated issues: (1)
    > the optimum organization of maintenance-aiding information in text, (2)
    > the presentation of the best information in the best order depending on
    > the current knowledge and need of the user, and (3) the best handling of
    > complex graphics under the constraint of low resolution, small-screen
    > technology. In Phase I we propose three activities: (a) Review the
    > literature for the last five years on design, usability, usefulness, and
    > practical experience with systems for organizing information and for
    > aiding and individualizing information finding for maintenance and
    > related jobs,
    > (b) Create partial prototypes or mock ups to demonstrate the design and
    > intent of representative new features, functions, and enhancements based
    > on the new computer text-understanding technology, Latent Semantic
    > Analysis (LSA), coupled with the empirically proven design, functions
    > and features of the SuperBook hypertext manual browser, (c) Propose a
    > new overall design for a browser with LSA, enhanced dynamic information
    > aids and advanced graphics functions to be prototyped and evaluated in
    > Phase II. Maintenance of increasingly complex technological systems is a
    > critical and difficult problem for defense, government and private
    > sector organizations.
    > Traditional print media and current on-line systems are not adequate.
    > The expected outcome of this project is identification of the optimum
    > organization and presentation of maintenance information in job-aiding,
    > and design of potentially order-of-magnitude better ways to dynamically
    > organize, present, and customize information for given jobs and
    > individual maintainer levels of expertise. A successful technology of
    > this kind will be the basis of a high revenue Internet-based service and
    > licensing business, and will result in major cost savings and product
    > improvements for a wide spectrum of large industries, from
    > telecommunications to computer and network systems to airline
    > operations.
    > SENTAR, INC.
    > 4900 University Square Suite 8
    > Huntsville, AL 35816
    > Phone: (256) 704-0863
    > PI: Andrew Schooley
    > Topic#: BMDO 00-010
    > Title: Agent-based Knowledge-design Assistance (AKA)
    > Abstract:
    > Over the past decade the growth of data, information and knowledge has
    > been accelerating and search engines and simple automation have proven
    > to be inadequate at addressing the ensuing information glut. This points
    > to the opportunity to apply Intelligent Agent technology to the problem
    > by using them as assistants in managing data/information and developing
    > the needed knowledge. Our proposed "Agent-based Knowledge-design
    > Assistance (AKA) Environment" concept is a significant opportunity for
    > the creation of an integrated environment for rapidly formulating
    > knowledge bases utilizing agents in conjunction with design pattern
    > concepts. The AKA concept provides an environment for hosting knowledge
    > design pattern agents, called Template Agents (TA) and using XML as a
    > run-time tool for conversion, storage, and maintenance of knowledge. The
    > environment presents the user with an integrated view of the available
    > TAs using an orchestrating agent, called Design Assistant Agent (DAA),
    > which manages, arbitrates and negotiates with the TAs. All the agents
    > act autonomously to promulgate their design pattern and agenda within
    > the context of the AKA environment and the knowledge base content. We
    > believe that the application of design patterns with the AKA environment
    > will reduce risk, lead-time, complexity and level-of-effort associated
    > with creation of knowledge and management of information. We expect the
    > AKA project to be on a FastTrack due to commercialization plans of our
    > teammates, Boeing and KnoWave, both of whom have immediate need for the
    > technology. The AKA is targeted at the "solution seeking" market which
    > is projected to grow from $240M in 2000 to about $1.9B in 2002.
    > 725 Concord Avenue
    > Cambridge, MA 02138
    > Phone: (617) 491-3474
    > PI: Dan L. Grecu
    > Topic#: NIMA 00-002
    > Title: Agent for Intelligent Analysis Support
    > Abstract:
    > Intelligence analysts have to respond to the information needs of
    > commanders and decision makers leading military forces into potential
    > engagements in a diversity of scenarios and in a large variety of
    > geographical, political and social contexts. For NIMA this task requires
    > the semantic integration of the imagery and geospatial analysis with
    > large and diverse data repositories and real-time information. To
    > support this information retrieval and integration process we propose
    > the development of an Agent for Intelligent Analysis Support. The agent
    > will assist analysts by semantically representing the context of the
    > analysis problem and using it to support the intelligent information
    > retrieval process. The agent will also amplify the information retrieval
    > process by using domain ontologies, and will suggest additional
    > information sources based on semantic associations with the problem
    > context. The proposed approach will enable imagery and geospatial
    > analysts to respond to queries anchored in the semantics of concrete
    > tactical situations, and to complete their responses with data and
    > knowledge available from intelligence channels, technical databases, and
    > electronic knowledge repositories. The development effort will comply
    > with DII-COE standards and integrate with the toolsets that are
    > currently part of the United States Imagery & Geospatial Information
    > Systems framework. The proposed effort has significant potential
    > applications, both as a technology and as an end-product. As a
    > technology the approach will provide tools for context-based semantic
    > information retrieval from real-time information streams and
    > repositories, in response to the decision-makers increasingly complex
    > information needs. Candidate domains range from command and control
    > centers, to market analysis, and to assessment in complex medical
    > domains. As an end-product, the associated knowledge engineering tools
    > will support on-going DoD efforts to develop multi-domain collections of
    > knowledge bases, analysis and reasoning tools, that will enable the
    > warfighter to take rapid, and informed decisions in complex, real-time
    > situations.
    > 1911 N. Ft. Myer Drive, Suite 600
    > Arlington, VA 22209
    > Phone: (703) 841-3500
    > PI: Ed Wright
    > Topic#: NIMA 00-003
    > Title: A Computational Hypothesis Space for Geospatial Information
    > Abstract:
    > This research will develop a revolutionary advance in database concepts
    > for geospatial information that will support future intelligence
    > analysts in providing responsive support to military operations. The
    > concept will provide a computational hypothesis space that provides
    > capabilities for advanced reasoning about features distributed in time
    > and space based on diverse sources of information. The proposed
    > capability will support today's intelligence analyst with the
    > challenging task of providing responsive support to military operations.
    > When a crisis arises suddenly in an area of the world where little
    > initial data is available, the capability will provide rapid access to
    > imagery, spatial data, text, and intelligence reports from diverse
    > heterogeneous sources with wide variations in currency and quality. Over
    > time, as crisis develop, a vast amount of current and detailed data is
    > continuously collected and generated by a wide range of sensors and
    > production systems. The proposed database architecture will also provide
    > capabilities to correlate and fuse all of this information so analysts
    > can reason about the military situation and provide a high level of
    > support to commander's operational requirements. The revolutionary
    > database concepts developed under this research will support advanced
    > reasoning with geospatial information in a wide range of military and
    > civilian problem domains. Applications include intelligence analysis,
    > operational planning, resource management and exploration, and
    > transportation and urban planning.
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