[Date Prev] [Date Next] [Thread Prev] [Thread Next] Indexes: Main | Date | Thread | Author

[ba-unrev-talk] Fallacious Reasoning

Title: Message

From Howard Kahane (1976) Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric

*** Fallacious Because of Being Invalid

Appeal to Authority - Improper appeal to authority. An example is when a Nobel laureate in chemistry writes an opinion about a subject she is not an expert such as political science and people then cite him as an authority about political science believing that being considered and expert in one area means they are knowledgeable about others. Popularity - Appeal to the crowd as the authority. An example is someone believing something is to be true because people in general believe something to be true.

Traditional Wisdom - Appealing to the past as authority. An example - it has always been believed that way so therefore it is.

Provincialism - Failure to look beyond one's own group. Also called "not-invented-here" syndrome where a knowledge claim is not believed to be true because it is generated by another group other than one's own.

Loyalty - Deciding the truth on the basis of loyalty. Believing something to be true because a group you are loyal to believes it to be true.

Irrelevant Reason - Use of evidence entirely irrelevant to a conclusion.

Ambiguity - Use of ambiguous terms to mislead (or which in fact mislead)

Slippery Slope - Failure to see that the first step in possible series of steps does not inevitably lead to the rest

Balkanization theory - The conclusion that the breakup of one company or nation will lead to others

Domino theory - The conclusion that if A falls, then B, then C, and others will also fall.

Ad Hominem Argument or Genetic Fallacy ( Argument to the Man) Guilt by Association - Attacking a person rather than the argument.

Two Wrongs Make a Right or Common Practice - "if someone else does it, it is OK for me to do it"

Tokenism - Do a small amount of what is required and then say that you did the whole thing

Hasty Conclusion - Jumping to conclusions with not enough evidence

Questionable Classification - Classifying something falsely

Questionable Cause - Labeling something as the cause of something else with not enough evidence

Questionable Analogy - Falsely comparing or really stretching the comparison of two things

******Fallacious Even If Valid

Suppressed Evidence - Trying to prove a point while not providing all the evidence, when doing so would weaken the argument.

Questionable Premise - Accepting premises in an argument that are both questionable and inadequately supported

Unknown Fact - Stating supporting facts to an argument that are not possible to know

Questionable evaluation - Using language to conjure up an image that is different from the facts

Straw man - Misinterpreting or rephrasing an opponent's position so it becomes easier to attack

False Dilemma - Trying to make an argument either-or when it is not

Begging the Question - Endorsing without prove some form of the very question at issue

Inconsistency - Arguing using contradictory premises

False Charge of Fallacy - Charging a person of being inconsistent when all they did was change their mind


From Howard Kahane (1976) Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric